Glossary of Terms - g
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- Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP)
- An enzyme associated with the uptake of amino acids (protein building blocks) by cells. Elevated blood levels are frequently seen in alcoholic liver disease.
- A congenital defect in which a fissure is present in the wall of the abdomen, often with protrusion.
- Glaucoma test
- Examination of the eye for the presence of disease that can result in complete and permanent vision loss and that is characterized by increased pressure within the eyeball and damaged optic disk. When diagnosed early, glaucoma usually can be controlled by the use of suitable eye drops. Continued use of the medication is vital for sight preservation. A test for glaucoma is advised for all adults every three to five years, as the onset of the chronic form of the disease may be without noticeable symptoms.
- A polypeptide hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in response to hypoglycemia. Can be given as a intramuscular injection to treat severe hypoglycemia.
- The main sugar and source of energy in blood. It is contained in common dietary sugar (sucrose). Also known as dextrose, it occurs widely in nature, especially in certain plants. Blood and urine levels of glucose can help diagnose diabetes, hypoglycemia, and hormone disorders. Glucose tests are often called tests for "sugar." A glucose tolerance test, usually performed to assist in the diagnosis of diabetes or hypoglycemia, measures the ability of the body to metabolize a standard amount of the sugar.
- Glucose Test
- A blood test done to determine the non-fasting plasma glucose concentration. Levels of > 200 mg/dl plus classic signs and symptoms of diabetes including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia and weight loss are diagnostic for diabetes mellitus.
- Glycosylated hemoglobin
- The iron-containing red pigment of red blood cells (hemoglobin) combined with a glucose derivative. When glucose is elevated, more glycosylate product is formed in the cells. Measurement of this hemoglobin reflects the blood glucose level over the previous several weeks; thus, it is a good indicator of blood glucose control in diabetics.
- A swelling of the thyroid gland, possible symptom of hypo- or hyperthyroidism.
- A chiefly sexually transmitted infection caused by gonococci bacteria. If left untreated, gonorrhea can result in complications including sterility, blindness (preventive treatment is thus routinely given to newborns), or spread to the heart and joints. Women with gonorrhea may be asymptomatic, whereas men often present with a noticeable discharge from the penis.
- Grave's Disease
- A disease characterized by excess thyroid hormone production, caused by a stimulation of the thyroid gland by antibodies to the TSH receptor. Ophthalmopathy may or may not be present.